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Parsa Wildlife Reserve



Parsa Wildlife Reserve was established in 1984 with an area of 499 sq. km. It occupies part of Chitwan, Makwanpur, Parsa and Bara Districts in Central Nepal. The reserve headquarter is situated at Adhabar on the Hetauda-Birgunj highway (22 km south to Hetauda and 20 km north to Birgunj).
The dominant landscape of the reserve is the Churia hills ranging from 750 m to 950 m, which run east-west. The soil is primarily composed of gravel and conglomerates making it very vulnerable to erosion. The hills present a very rugged face with numerous gullies and dry stream beds. As the foothills are very porous, water flows underground and surfaces at a distance of about 15 km from the hills base.

Vegetation and Wildlife:

  • The forest is composed of tropical and subtropical forest types with sal (Shorea robusta) forest constituting 90% of the vegetation. In the Churia hills chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) grows and along the streams and river khair (Acacia catechu), sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo) and silk cotton tree (Bombaxceiba) occur. Sabai grass (Enlaliopsisbinata), a commercially important grass species, grows well on the southern face of the Churia hills.
  • The reserve supports a good population of resident wild elephant (Elephas maxinuts), tiger (Pantheratigris), leopard (Panthera pardus), sloth bear (Melursus ursinnus), garu (Bos gaurus), blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and wild dog (Cuon alpinus). Other common animals are sambar (Cervus unicolor), chital (Zxis asis), hog deer (Axis porcinus), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjac), langur (Presbytes entellus), rhesus macaques, striped hyena, Ratel, palm civet and jungle cat.
  • There are nearly 300 species of birds in the reserve. Giant hornbill, one of the endangered species, is found in certain forest patches. Peafowl, red jungle fowl, flycatchers and woodpeckers are a few of the other common birds found in the reserve.
  • Many kinds of snake like king cobra, common cobra, krait, rat snake and python are found in the reserve due to the hot tropical climate.


  • The reserve has a subtropical monsoon climate with relatively high humidity. The main season are winter (October-December), spring (January-March), summer (April-June) and monsoon (July-September). Summer days are characteristically hot with average temperatures ranging from 30 – 35 C.

Tourist Attraction:

  • Kailash (Bhata) – a religious place and scenic viewing spot on a hilltop is 29 km away from Adhabar (the Reserve head quarters).

How to Get There:

  • The reserve is accessible by bus via the Kathmandu Birgunj highway or the Mahendra Rajmarg highway. The reserve headquarters is an 8 hour drive from Kathmandu. Simara airport is 7 km away from the reserve headquarters. It takes only 15 minutes to reach Simara from Kathmandu by plane.

Important Points:

  • Flora and fauna of the reserve are fully protected and must not be disturbed.
  • Rubbish must be buried or disposed of in a designated place.
  • Movement within the reserve is prohibited before sunrise and after sunset.

Entry fees into Parsa Wildlife Reserve:

Wildlife Reserve entry fee per person per day:

  • For Nepali Citizens Rs 100
  • For SAARC Citizens Rs 500
  • For Foreign Citizens Rs 2000
  • Children under 10 years  Free